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Containerised cargo is exposed to a variety of external forces due to acceleration, deceleration and changes of direction. Cargo movement inside containers need to be properly confined so as to prevent damage to the cargo, container and to the transit vehicle as well as to prohibit accidents
Transporting cargo by sea is also subjected to the same external forces. Forces experienced at sea move containers in the same direction as the force. Of all the forces, sideward rolling movement causes the highest G-forces.
No matter what method is used, land or sea, the transporting of cargo requires proper securement and confinement inside containers so that the load can get to its destination in its original form without any damage to the container and to the vehicle.
Standard Ways to Secure Cargo
There are 3 standard ways in which cargo of all categories can be securely transported :
The type of securement depends on the size, weight, shape and type of cargo. Lashing, combined with appropriate hardware, is used for blocking and bracing cargo movement
Working Load Limit
The working load limit (WLL) is the maximum load that may be applied to a component of a cargo securement system. The WLL of a cargo securement system is the lowest WLL of any of its individual parts or anchor points. Every device or part of the securement system is taken into consideration.
The WLL to block cargo from movement must be 50% or more of the weight of the actual cargo being secured. The minimum WLL requirement for the entire cargo securement system is 50%.
If any part of the securement system is compromised, the WLL is affected and can result in cargo becoming loose and wayward.

Cargo that is palletised and fully stacked in a container uses the container strength and the other pallets to remain intact during transit.
Cargo that is partially stacked or irregular requires a simple combination of lashing for bracing and blocking as well as vehicle structure and other cargo to restraint movement
Other cargo may involve complex combination structures using lashing, designer braces, buckles, etc.